As found in the book, "The Hessians The Revolution", By Edward J. Lowell.
Ackland, Major, wounded at Stillwater, 157.
Agnew, General, skirmish near Dilworth, 200; killed at Germantown, 203.
American solders at Saratoga described by a Brunswick officer, 182, 183. See Officers.
American women. See Women.
André, Major John, executed, 260.
Anhalt-Zerbst, number of troops sent from, 20, 52, 300.
Anhalt-Zerbst, Frederick Augustus, Prince of, lets out troops, 3, 15; his character and absurdities, 12, 13; treaty with England, 15. See Numbers.
Anhalt-Zerbst regiment, its march to the sea, 52; riot at Zeulenrode, and desertion, 52; the commander of Quebec refuses to let it land, 52.
Anne. See Fort Anne.
Anspach, Charles Frederick William, Margrave of, his character and temper, 9-11.
Anspach-Bayreuth, number of inhabitants, 9; property of the Hohenzollern family, 9; recruiting system, 37; anecdote, 42. See Numbers.
Anspach-Bayreuth, Charles Alexander, Margrave of, lets out troops, 3, 15; his character and travels, 11; amount of subsidy received, 12; offers troops in 1775, 15; treaty made in 1776, 15; rides to Ochsenfurth to suppress the mutiny, 49; accompanies his soldiers to Holland, 49, 50; letter from Frederick the Great, 50, 51; sells his margraviate to Prussia in 1791, 12. See Numbers.
Anspach-Bayreuth regiments, mutiny at Ochsenfurth, 48, 49; embarked in Holland, 50; recruits and chasseurs are stopped at Bendorf and return to Hanau, 51; their long passage, 51, 52; at Philadelphia these regiments are said to be unable to march, or untrustworthy, 212, 213; at Newport, 218; chasseurs carried to Europe in the disabled Anna, 243, 244; plundering of Hackensack, 256, 257; at Yorktown, 277-281; the Anspach chasseurs form part of the Hessian Jagar Corps, 298.
Armand, Colonel, Chevalier (Marquis de la Rouerie), commanding Americans and Indians, skirmishes near Courtland's Plantation and East Chester, 223, 224; enlists deserters, 288, 289; these desert back again, 290.
Arnold, General Benedict, commands the American fleet on Lake Champlain, 122; naval operations, 122, 123; penance of eight Canadians in Quebec on the anniversary of his defeat there, 124; Arnold raises the siege of Fort Stanwix, 150; wounded near Stillwater, 159; treason, 260; in Virginia, 270-272; snubbed by Ewald, 271; burns New London, 263.
Augusta, Ga., occupied by the British and abandoned, 240; capitulates to the Americans, 270.
Badger, transport ship, taken by privateers and retaken, 237, 238.
Baltimore, Md., Congress retires to, 86.
Barnegat Inlet, the Triton captured and taken to, 236.
Barrington, Lord, speaks in the House of Commons, 29.
Barton, Lieutenant-Colonel William, captures General Prescott on Rhode Island, 217.
Baton Rouge, La., taken by the Spaniards, 252.
Battenkill, Riedesel advises Burgoyne to retreat behind the, 156. See Bennington.
Bauer, a chasseur, his gallant conduct, 110, 111.
Baum, Lieutenant-Colonel Friedrich, advances to Fort Miller, 142; sent to Bennington, 143; captures stores at Cambridge, Vt., and at Sancoik, 144; letter to Burgoyne and reply, 144; second letter, 145; intrenches himself at Bennington is attacked, mortally wounded, and taken with his command, 146, 147.
Bavaria, the elector offers troops to England, 15.
Bayreuth. See Anspach-Bayreuth; Wilhelmina.
Beaufort, S. C., occupied by the British, 240, 241.
Bedford, L. I., the American left wing turned, 63. See Long Island.
Beggarstown. See Germantown.
Bennington, Vt., Baum's expedition to, 142-147; importance of the American victory there, 147, 152. See Baum; Breymann.
Biel, Lieutenant Jacob, Rall's aid at Trenton, 93, 94.
Birmingham, N. J., Washington's army divided into two columns, 93. See Trenton.
Block, Lieutenant-Colonel, at Long Island, 62. Gren. Batt. von Block, see Grenadiers; Regiment.
Blood money, in the treaty with Brunswick, 17-19; and in the treaties with Hanau and Waldeck, 20; but not in that with Cassel, 18; nor in that with Anspach, 20.
Bordentown, N. J., Donop at, 87; fugitives from Trenton escape to, 95.
Bose. See Regiment.
Boundbrook, N. J., surprised, 108-110; skirmish near, 111, 112.
Brandenstein, a Waldeck deserter, living with the Indians, 252.
Brandywine (plan, 198), battle, 198-200.
Bremerlehe, Hessians embarked at, 46.
Breymann, Lieutenant-Colonel Heinrich Christoph, ordered to support Lieutenant-Colonel Baum, his slow march, 145; fight near Bennington, and retreat, 147; does good service at Freeman's Farm, 153; killed at Stillwater, 158.
Briede, Lieutenant, fords the Bronx, 77; killed at Fort Washington, 77.
Bronx River. See Chatterton Hill.
Brown, Colonel John, threatens Ticonderoga, 153.
Brown, Captain Moses, at Trenton, 92, n.
Brunswick, N. J. See New Brunswick.
Brunswickers start from Brunswick and embark, 46; commanded by Baron Riedesel, 117, 118; quality of troops, 119; bad uniforms and no overcoats, 119; voyage to Canada, 120; naval engagement on Lake Champlain, 122, 123; winter quarters and arrival of second division, 124; number with Burgoyne's expedition, 137, 138; Bennington, 142-147; advance on Stillwater and fight at Freeman's Farm, 151-153; condition of the army, 154; reconnoissance and fight, 156-158; retreat to Saratoga, 160-162; surrender, number, 169; lay down their arms, 181; flags concealed, 181, 182; as prisoners, march across Massachusetts, 184; near Cambridge, 189-193; transferred to Virginia, 193-196; desertion, 287; disabled soldiers left in Canada on the return of the others to Brunswick, 291. See Baum; Breymann; Brunswick-Luneburg; Numbers; Riedesel.
Brunswick-Luneburg, number of inhabitants, 8.
Brunswick-Luneburg, Duke CharlesI. and his son, Duke Charles William Ferdinand, govern together, 8; the latter marries a sister of George III., 8; their character, they let out troops, amount of subsidy, 8; treaty with England, 16; blood-money clause, 17-19; the soldiers who have been surrendered at Saratoga not to be sent back to Germany, 181; invalids to be left in Canada when the troops return, 291. See Numbers.
Bull, Alderman, speaks in the House of Commons, 30.
Burgoyne, Lieutenant-General John, receives scalps, 122; commands the espedition to the Hudson in 1777, 136; disliked by Riedesel, 136, 137; number of troops, 138; employment of Indians, 138; takes Fort Ticonderoga, 140; requests Riedesel to issue an order against marauding, 141; advances to Fort Edward, 142; rough nature of the country, 142; letter to Riedesel concerning baggage, 142; need of provisions and pack-horses, 143; Burgoyne sends Lieutenant-Colonel Baum to Bennington, 143; remonstrance of Riedesel, 143; warning of the guide, 144; letter from Baum and reply, 144; second letter from Baum, 145; Lieutenant-Colonel ordered to support Baum, 145; letter, 146; Burgoyne advances to support Breymann, 147; importance of the battle of Bennington to Burgoyne, 147; St. Leger's expedition to the Mohawk Valley, 148-150; Burgoyne crosses the Hudson, 151; action at Freeman's Farm, near Stillwater, 152; critical condition of the army, 154; letter from Sir Henry Clinton, 154; the answer intercepted by General Clinton, 155; the answer intercepted by General Clinton, 154; the answer intercepted by General Clinton, 155; the army on short rations, 155; councils of war, 156; reconnoissance and second battle of Stillwater, 156-159; retreat to Saratoga, 160-162; councils of war and negotiations, 162-169; surrender, 169; number of troops, 169; differences between Burgoyne and Riedesel, 170-172; soldiers lay down their arms, 181; Burgoyne meets General Gates, 183; is snubbed by Baroness Riedesel, 170, 183, 184; apologizes to Schuyler, 184; convention of Saratoga broken, 180, 181; Burgoyne's conciliatory policy, 256.
Burke, Edmund, speaks in the House of Commons, 30.
Bushkirk, Lieutenant-Colonel, in command at Paulus Hook, 227; Paulus Hook surprised in his absence, 228.
Butler, Colonel, at Boundbrook, 108-110; skirmish near Raritan Landing, 110-112.
Cabale und Liebe, Schiller's tragedy quoted, 25, 26.
Cadwalader, Brigadier-General John, does not cross the Delaware, 92; joins Washington, 106.
Cadwalader, Colonel Lambert, second in command at Fort Washington, 80; negotiates the surrender, 81.
Cambridge, Mass., German prisoners at, 188-193.
Cambridge, Vt., Baum captures stores at, 144.
Camden, S. C., Gates routed, 265; Greene defeated, 270.
Camden, Lord, speaks in the House of Lords, 34, 35.
Campbell, Major-General John, sails to West Florida, 251; bisieged in Pensacola, 253; capitulates, 254.
Campbell, Colonel William, at Guildford Court House, 268, 269.
Campbell, Lieutenant-Colonel, takes Savannah, 239, 240.
Canadians with Baum's expedition, 142; escape from Bennington, 146.
Carleton, General Sir Guy, Governor of Canada, interviews with Indians, 121, 122; naval battle on Lake Champlain, 122, 123; occupies and abandons Crown Point, 123; partially superseded by Burgoyne, 136; supersedes Sir Henry Clinton, 282.
Carlisle, Earl of, speaks in the House of Lords, 33, 34.
Cassel desfribed, I. See Hesse-Cassel.
Catherine II., Empress of Russia, sister to the Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst, 13.
Cavendish, Lord John, speaks in the House of Commons, 29.
Chad's Ford. See Brandywine.
Champlain, Lake, American fleet on, 121; naval battle, 122, 123; part of the thoroughfare from New York to Canada, 138; boats brought from Lake Champlain to the Hudson, 151.
Charles I. See Brunswick-Luneburg.
Charles Alexander. See Anspach-Bayreuth.
Charles Frederick William. See Anspach.
Charles William Ferdinand. See Brunswick-Luneburg.
Charleston, S. C., threatened by General Prevost, 240; occupied by General Lincoln, 240; besieged and taken by Sir Henry Clinton, 244-250; described, 250, 251; evacuated, 282.
Charlottesville, Va., prisoners at, 195; Tarleton's raid to, 272, 273.
Chasseurs contracted for, 20; Anspach chasseurs resist the mutiny at Ochsenfurth, 48; Hessian chasseurs on Long Island, 59-64; land on New York Island, 71; skirmish at Manhattanville, 72; arrival of the second company under Captain Ewald, and skirmish, 75, 76; at Trenton, 87, 95, 96; second action at Trenton, 106; organization of the chasseurs, 107, 108; Hanau chasseurs with St. Leger, 138, 149, n.; skirmish in Maryland, 197-198; battle of Brandywine, 198-200; Germantown, 201-203; Redbank, 204-206; picket duty near Philadelphia, 210, 211; officers complimented by Sir William Howe, 211; skirmishes near Courtland's Plantation and East Chester, 223-225; chasseurs carried to Europe in the disabled Anna, 243, 244; siege of Charleston, 243, 246-251; expeditions to Springfield, N. J., 257-259; action near Fort Independence, and gallant conduct of Sergeant Rubenkonig, 260-262; Guildford Court House, 269; gallant conduct near Portsmouth, Va., 270-271; Gloucester, Va., 278; with Arnold at New London, 263; the Anspach chasseurs form part of the Hessian Jager Corps, 108, n., 298.
Chatterton, Hill, action at, 76, 77.
Chester, Pa., General Wayne retreats to, 199. See Brandywine.
Choctaws in Florida assist the British, 253.
Choisy, Brigadier-General de, at Gloucester, Va., 278.
Clinton, Brigadier-General George, Governor of New York, in command at Fort Clinton, 155, n.; letter to Washington concerning German deserters, 289, 290.
Clinton, General Sir Henry, on Long Island, 59; battle, 63; letter to General Burgoyne, 154; the answer intercepted by General James Clinton, 155; takes Forts Clinton and Montgomery, 155; evacuation of Philadelphia, and retreat across New Jersey, 212-214; commands expedition to Newport, 216; comes to relieve Newport, 220; Charleston, 243-250; Clinton escapes capture, 245, 246; returns to New York, 251; harsh policy, 256; expedition to Springfield, N. J., 259, 260; orders Lord Cornwallis to send three thousand men to New York, 274; orders countermanded, 276; believes that Washington intends to attack New York or Staten Island, 262, 263, 276; sends reinforcements to Cornwallis, 263; returns to Europe, 282.
Clinton, Brigadier-General James, in command at Fort Montgomery, intercepts a letter from Burgoyne to Sir Henry Clinton, 155.
Clinton. See Fort Clinton.
Cochrane, Major, carries despatches to Yorktown, 279; is killed, 279.
Commons, debate in the House of, 27-30.
Congress, Washington proposes to Congress to burn New York, 74; Congress retires from Philadelphia to Baltimore, 86; authorizes Washington to raise an army, 115; breaks the Convention of Saratoga, 180, 181.
Congreve, Captain, wounded at Flatbush, 66.
Connecticut Farms, N. J. See Springfield.
Cook's Ford, Va., Lord Cornwallis at, 272.
Cornwallis, Charles, Earl of, at Flatbush, 62; at Fort Washington, takes the redoubt on Laurel Hill, 80; in command in New Jersey, 86; praises the conduct of Rall's brigade at Fort Washington, 88; his opinion of the surprise at Trenton, 97, 98; advance on Trenton, 106; Washington escapes, 107; attack on Boundbrook, 108-110; Brandywine, 198-200; occupies Wilmington, Del., 200; Philadelphia, 201; battle of Germantown, 203; takes Fort Mifflin, and destroys Fort Mercer, 208; harsh policy, 256; campaign in South Carolina, 265; Cowpens, 266; Guildford Court House, 267-269; retreats to Wilmington, N. C., 270; arrives at Petersburg, 272; crosses the James, and advances to Cook's Ford, 272; retreats to Williamsburg, 273, 274; ordered to send three thousand men to New York, retreats towards Portsmouth, 274-276; battle of Green Spring, 274, 275; orders countermanded, 276; occupies Yorktown and Gloucester, 276; siege and surrender, 277-281; the fate of the war decided, 282.
Courtland's Plantation, skirmish near, 223.
Courtland's Reach, American and French armies at, 262.
Cow Bay, L. I., expedition to, 225.
Crown Point occupied and abandoned by Sir Guy Carleton, 123.
Cumberland, William Augustus, Duke of, commands Hessians in 1745; they refuse to fight, 2.
Cumberland, Henry Frederick, Duke of, speaks in the House of Lords, 34.
Dechow, Major von, snubbed by Colonel Rall at Trenton, 89; wounded and taken, 95.
Declaration of Independence, partly a result of the employment of Hessians, 35, 36, 298.
Desertion, precautions against it in Wurtemberg and Hesse, 41; in Anspach, 42; of recruits, 42, 43; from Burgoyne's army, 155, 156, 287, 289, 290; deserters to be scalped, 138; in New Jersey, 213; the subject generally considered, 285-291; punishment of a deserter near Cambridge, Mass., 289; guess of the author as to numbers, 300.
Deux Ponts, Count de, conversation with Ewald concerning the treatment of the Germans by the British, 285.
Dickson, Lieutenant-Colonel, in command at Baton Rouge, surrenders, 252.
Dilworth, skirmish, 199, 200.
Doehla, Anspach musketeer, his account of the plundering of Hackensack, N. J., 257.
Donop, Colonel Carl Emil Kurt von, commanding grenadiers and chasseurs on Long Island, 59-64; crosses to New York Island, 71; his account of the fire in New York, 74; at Bordentown, 87; sends a captain of engineers to Trenton, 89; his opinion of the surprise at Trenton, 97, 98; receives Colonel Reed, 112; sent to take Fort Mercer at Redbank, fails, is wounded and taken, 204-207; his last words and death, 206, 207. See Chasseurs; Grenadiers.
Donop, Lieutenant Ernst Friedrich Wilhelm von, wounded at Flatbush, 60.
Donop, See Regiment.
Dumfries, Va., Hessian prisoners at, 103.
Dunk's Ferry, Colonel Cadwalader fails to cross the Delaware, 92. See Trenton.
Du Plessis. See Mauduit.
East Chester, N. Y., Sir William Howe lands at, 75; skirmish near, 223-225.
Edward. See Fort Edward.
Effingham, Earl of, speaks in the House of Lords, 34.
Elizabethtown. See Springfield.
Elk River, Md., the British land in the, 197.
Emmerich, Lieutenant-Colonel Andreas, skirmishes near East Chester, 223, 225; at Hackensack, 256; expedition to the Phillips House, 260, 262.
Estaing, Count d', threatens Newport, 218, 219; is repulsed from Savannah, 242.
Eutaw Springs, General Greene defeated at, 270.
Ewald, Captain Johann, joins the army with the second company of chasseurs, and skirmish, 75, 76; Ewald's opinion concerning Trenton, 98, n.; surprise of Boundbrook, 108-110; skirmish near Raritan Landing, 110-112; skirmish near Boundbrook, Ewald's hat rescued, 112; statements concerning Joseph Reed and Alexander Hamilton, 112, 113; Brandywine, Ewald decorated, 199; skirmish near Dilworth, 200; Ewald warned before the battle of Germantown, 201; complimented by Sir William Howe, 211; skirmish near East Chester, 224; stories of American enterprises, 225; Ewald praises American officers, 226, 227; siege of Charleston, 243; trick at John's Island, 246; Ewald wounded near Portsmouth, Va., his quarrel with Benedict Arnold, 270, 271; skirmish near Williamsburg, Va., 274; at Gloucester, 278; conversation with the Count de Deux Ponts concerning the treatment of the German auxiliaries by the English, 285.
Faucitt, Colonel William, British commissary for obtaining troops in Germany, 14, 39; letter from Feronce to him, 181, n.
Ferdinand, Prince of Brunswick, patron of Riedesel, 118; who writes to him, 120.
Feronce, J. B. de, Minister of the Duke of Brunswick, writes to Faucitt to prevent the return of the Brunswickers who had been surrendered at Saratoga to their country, 181.
Flags, American, captured at Long Island, 67; captured at Fort Washington, 83. Brunswick, concealed by Riedesel, 181, 182. Hessian, taken at Trenton, 97; not to be restored to the regiments losing them, 97; some of these flags said to have been retaken at John's Island, S. C., 241.
Flatbush, L. I., occupied by the Hessians, 60; skirmishing, 60-62.
Fort Anne, position, 139; abandoned by the Americans, 141.
Fort Clinton taken by Sir Henry Clinton from General James Clinton, 155.
Fort Edward, Baroness Riedesel joins her husband at, 133, 134; position, 139; Burgoyne advances to, 142; remains near, 151; plan of retreating from Saratoga by, 162.
Fort George, position, 70; the British depart, 282.
Fort Knyphausen, See Fort Washington.
Fort Lee, position, 79; abandoned by the Americans, 85.
Fort Mercer, expedition against it repulsed, 204-207; the fort abandoned, 208.
Fort Mifflin, position, 203; taken, 208.
Fort Miller occupied by General Fraser, 142.
Fort Montgomery, Sir Henry Clinton sends word to Burgoyne that he will take it, 154; takes it, 155.
Fort Moultrie, defending Charleston, 245; passed by the British fleet, 247; capitulates, 248, 249.
Fort Schuyler, Herkimer's party fall back to, 149.
Fort Stanwix, St. Leger's expedition repulsed, 148-150; importance of this, 152.
Fort Ticonderoga, reconnoitred by Riedesel in October, 1776, 123; its position, history, and importance, 138-140; taken by the British, 140; unsuccessful attack of Colonel Brown, 153.
Fort Washington, described, 78, 79; taken, 79-83; named Fort Knyphausen, 83.
Four Winds, Island of the, naval battle near, 123.
France, alliance with the United States, 212. See French Army; French Fleet.
Fraser, Brigadier-General Simon, at Hubbardton, 141; advances to Fort Miller, 142; commands the right wing, 152; councils of war, 156; reconnoissance near Stillwater, 156-158; Fraser mortally wounded, 157; his death and burial, 160.
Frederick, Prince of Waldeck-Pyrmont. See Waldeck.
Frederick II., Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel. See Hesst.
Frederick II. (the Great), King of Prussia, writes to Voltaire concerning the man-selling princes, 24,25; said to have given permission to the princes to let out troops, 50, n.; writes to the Margrave of Anspach, 50,51; delays the Anspach and Hanau recruits, 51; and the Anhalt-Zerbst regiment, 52; his reasons and his general relation to the American Revolution, 53-55.
Frederick Augustus. See Anhalt-Zerbst.
Frederick William, King of Prussia, described by his daughter, Wilhelmina, 9.
Fredericksburg, Va., Hessian prisoners courteously treated at, 102, 103.
Frederika Louisa, Margravin of Anspach, 9.
Freeman's Farm, fight at, 152, 153. See Stillwater.
French army at Savannah, 242; near New York, and march to Virginia, 262, 263, 276, 277; at Yorktown, 277-281.
French fleet threatens the entrance of Delaware Bay, 212; Newport, 218, 219; Savannah, 242; delays the expedition against Charleston, 243; engagement off the capes of Virginia, 271, 272; De Grasse in or near Chesapeake Bay, 276-281.
Frog's Point. See Throg's Neck.
Foy, Captain, accompanies General Riedesel, 120.
Foy, Mrs., with Baroness Riedesel, 130.
Galvez, Don Bernardo de, takes Baton Rouge, 252; Pensacola, 253, 254.
Gansevoort, Lieutenant-Colonel, commanding at Fort Stanwix, 148; makes a sally, 149.
Gates, Major-General Horatio, did not appear in the field at Stillwater, 159; at Saratoga, 163; grants a truce and discusses terms with Burgoyne, 165, 168; Burgoyne surrenders to him, 169; the terms not fulfilled, 180, 181; Gates's civility, 183; Gates routed at Camden, 265.
Gemmingen, Freiherr von, minister of the Margrave of Anspach-Bayreuth, excuses the letting of troops, 23, 24.
George II., King of England, his daughter, Mary, married to Landgrave Frederick II. of Hessel-Cassel, 5.
George III., King of England, offered a regiment by William, Prince of Hesse-Hanau, 7, 15; the king's sister, Augusta Frederica, married to Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, 8, treaties with Brunswick, 16-19; Hesse-Cassel, etc., 19, 20; receives Baroness Riedesel, 131, 132.
George, Lake, part of the water-way from New York to Canada, 139; boats brought from Lake George to the Hudson, 151.
George. See Fort George.
Germaine, Lord George, speaks in the House of Commons, 28; his wife presents Baroness Riedesel at court, 131; Letter from Burgoyne to Germaine, 142; Germaine hopes that the southern provinces may be reduced to obedience, 239; orders harsh measures, 256.
Germans. See Anhalt-Zerbst; Anspach-Bayreuth; Brunswickers; Chasseurs; Grenadiers; Hessians; Regiment; Waldeck, etc.
Germantown, Pa., battle of, 201-203.
Germany in the eighteenth century, 3-5.
Gloucester, Va., occupied by Lord Cornwallis, 276; skirmish between Tarleton and Lauzun, 278, 279; scheme of retreat from, 280.
Glover, Colonel John, his regiment manned the boats when Washington crossed the Delaware, 92.
Gohr, General von, kind to Seume, 39.
Gowanus Creek, L. I., Americans drowned in, 63.
Grant, Colonel, killed at Long Island, 68.
Grant, General, commanding the British in New Jersey, 86; his arrangement of troops, 87; his contempt for the Americans, 89, 98, n.
Grasse, Count de, prepares to enter Chesapeake Bay, 276; arrives there and fights a naval battle, 277. See French Fleet; Yorktown.
Graves, Admiral Samuel, naval battle off Chesapeake Bay, 277.
Gravesend, L. I., occupied by the Hessians, 60.
Green, Captain, aid to General Phillips, in the cellar with Baroness Riedesel at Saratoga, offers assistance, 175.
Greene, Colonel Christopher, defends Fort Mercer at Redbank, 204-206.
Greene, Major-General Nathaniel, opposes the evacuation of Fort Washington, 79; evacuates Fort Lee, 85; commands the southern army, 266; retreats, 267; Battle of Guildford Court House, 267-269; Green, although defeated at Camden, Ninety-six, and Eutaw Springs, overruns North and South Carolina and Georgia, 270.
Green Spring, battle of, 274, 275.
Grenadiers (Hessian), on Long Island, 59-64; on New York Island, 71, 301, n.; skirmish near Manhattanville, 72; Chatterton Hill, 76, 77; at Bordentown, 87; occupy Philadelphia, 201; defeated at Redbank, 204-208; siege of Charleston, 243-251; embarked too late to assist Cornwallis, 263. See Donop; Regiment. For the various battalions see Appendix B, 297.
Grothausen, Lieutenant Friedrich Wilhelm von, perhaps the author of the account of the operations on Long Island, translated, 59-64; runs away at Trenton, '95; blamed by Ewald, 98, n.; killed at the second battle of Trenton, 106.
Guildford Court House, N. C., battle, 267-269.
Guilford, Conn., expedition from, to Sag Harbor, 225.
Hackensack, N. J., pillaged and burned, 256, 257.
Haddonfield, N. J., the Hessians pass through it on their way to Fort Mercer, 204; and in the retreat across New Jersey, 213.
Hamilton, Brigadier-General, in Burgoyne's army, at a council of war, 162-169.
Hamilton, Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander, snubbed by Captain Ewald, 112, 113.
Hanau. See Haynau; Hesse-Hanau; Hessian Soldiers.
Hand, Lieutenant-Colonel Edward, skirmish, 76; at Trenton, 95.
Hanover Court House, Va., Lord Cornwallis near, 272.
Hanoverians sent to Gibraltar and Minorca, 14.
Hanxleden, Colonel von, of the Waldeck regiment, killed in West Florida, 253.
Harnage, Major, wounded, and his wife, in the cellar with Baroness Riedesel at Saratoga, 173, 174.
Haynau, General von, son of William, Count of Hesse-Hanau, commits atrocities in Brescia in 1849, 7.
Heath, Major-General William, letter to Washington concerning scarcity of wood, 190, n.; left in command in the Highlands during Washington's Virginia campaign, 276.
Heeringen, Colonel von, his account of the battle of Long Island, 65-68.
Heister, Lieutenant-General Philip von, appointed to command the Hessians in America; his interview with the Landgrave, 58; crosses the Narrows to Long Island, 62; announces the defeat at Trenton to Schlieffen, 96; out of favor with Sir William Howe, 96; is recalled, 114; dies, 115.
Herkimer, General Nicholas, battle of Oriskany, 148, 149; dies, 150.
Hesse-Cassel, custom of the Landgraves to let out troops, 1, 2; population, 6. See Hessian Soldiers.
Hesse-Cassel, Landgrave Frederick II. of, lets out troops, 2, 3; married a daughter of George II., 5; his character, 5, 6; treaty with England, 19, 20; Frederick the Great's contempt for him, 24, 25; Seume, 38, 40; interview with Heister, 58; indignation at the surprise of Trenton, 97; recalls Heister and writes to Knyphausen, 114, 115; his conduct discussed, 291, 292. See Numbers.
Hesse-Hanau, county of, its situation, 7, 46; Anspachers pass the winter at Hanau, 51. See Hessian Soldiers.
Hesse-Hanau, Count William of, lets out troops, 3; his character, 6, 7; he writes to King George III., 7, 15; amount of subsidy received, 7; taxes remitted, 8. See Numbers.
Hessian soldiers--Cassel, general description, 37-45; start from Cassel, 46; journey, 55-57; on Staten Island, 58; Long Island, 59-69; battle, 62-69; New York, 71; skirmish at Manhattanville, 72; sail up East River, 74; second division joins the army, 75; skirmish, 75, 76; Chatterton Hill, 76, 77; storm Fort Washington, 80-83; plundering in New Jersey, 86; Trenton, 93-96; second engagement at Trenton, 106; sail for Chesapeake Bay, 197; Brandywine, 198-200; grenadiers occupy Philadelphia, 210; Germantown, 201-203; Fort Mercer (Redbank), 204-207; retreat across New Jersey, 213, 214; Newport, 215-220; hard fare in New York, 222, 223; skirmishes near Courtland Plantation and East Chester, 223, 224; two regiments sail for Canada; storm and captire, 230-238; at Savannah and in South Carolina and Georgia, 239-242; siege of Charleston, 243-251; plundering of Hackensack, 256, 257; two expeditions to Springfield, N. J., 257-260; fight near Fort Independence, 260-262; embarked for Yorktown to assist Lord Cornwallis; arrive too late, 263; two regiments left at Charleston, S. C., 265; one regiment sails for the South, 265; Guildford Court House, 267-269; in Virginia, 270, 271; skirmish near Williamsburg, 274; Green Spring, 274, 275; Yorktown, 277-281; the Hessians leave New York, 282; quality of the troops, 283, 284; quarrels with the British, 284, 285; desertion, 285-290; land granted to Hessians in Nova Scotia, 291. Hanau, join the Brunswick contingent, 119; artillery in the naval battle on Lake Champlain, 123; chasseurs with St. Leger, 138, 149, n.; artillery at Freeman's Farm, 153; artillery captured at Stillwater, 157; Hessians surrendered with the Brunswickers, 169. See Anhalt-Zerbst; Anspach-Bayreuth; Brunswickers; Chasseurs; Grenadiers; Numbers; Officers; Regiment; Waldeck.
Highlanders, Scotch, at Long Island, 61; occupy Murray Hill, 71; Fort Washington, 80; Bordentown, 87; Stono Ferry, 241.
Hinrichs, Lieutenant, then Captain, Johann, his description of Long Island, 62, n.; of the country near New York, 71; wounded, 73; skirmish near Raritan Landing, 111; siege of Charleston, 243.
Hinuber, Herr von, Hanoverian minister in London, and his wife, entertain Baroness Riedesel; unpleasant adventure in St. James's Park, 129.
Hohenstein, Captain George, sent to demand the surrender of Fort Washington, 81, 82.
Hohenzollern family traits, 9.
Holland refuses to let out troops, 14; the Dutch journals then the most influential on the Continent, 22.
House of Commons, Debate, 27-30.
House of Lords, Debate, 30-35.
Howe, General Sir William, commands the royal army on Staten Island, 58; prepares to occupy Long Island, 59; battle, 62-69; occupies New York, 71; detained by Mrs. Murray, 72; his account of the fire in New York, 74; lands at East Chester, 75; takes Chatterton Hill, 76, 77; does not attack Washington above White Plains, 78; but takes Fort Washington, 78-84; invades New Jersey, 85, 86; returns to New York, 86; not being satisfied with General von Heister, obtains his recall, 114, 115; position of affairs in the spring of 1777, 115, 116; operations in New Jersey, Howe sails to Chesapeake Bay, 197; Brandywine, 198-200; Philadelphia occupied, 201; Germantown, 201-203; Chestnut Hill, 210; attempt to capture Lafayette (Barren Hill), 211; Howe superseded by Sir Henry Clinton, 211; occupation of Newport, 215; conciliatory policy, 256. See Numbers.
Howe, Richard, Lord, commands the British fleet at New York, 58; Newport, 219.
Hubbardton, action at, 141.
Hudson River, forms part of the water-way from New York to Canada, 139; boats brought, 151; Burgoyne's operations near, 142-184. See Burgoyne; Riedesel.
Incleberg. See Murray.
Irnham, Lord, speaks in the House of Commons, 29.
Indians, conference with Sir Guy Carleton, present scalps, General Braddock's coat, 121, 122; with Burgoyne, 138, 159; at Bennington, 143-146; Mohawk Valley, 148-149; allowed to torture prisoners, 149; Stockbridge tribe, fighting for the Americans, destroyed, 223-225; in Florida, useful to the British, and receive 3 per scalp, 251-254.
Jager corps. See Chasseurs; Regiment.
James Island. See Charleston.
John's Island, S. C., occupied by Prevost, 240; abandoned, 241; engagement at Stono Ferry, 241; Hessian infantry take American vessels, 241.
Johnson, Colonel, taken prisoner and shot at the battle of Long Island, 64, 66, 67.
Joseph II., Emperor of Germany, an enlistened prince, 4.
Kennet Square. See Brandywine.
King's Fort. See Newport.
King's Mountain, N. C., engagement at, 265.
Kip's Bay, the British land on New York Island, 71.
Knyphausen, Lieutenant-General Wilhelm von, commanding the second division of Hessians, joins the army near New Rochelle, 75; storms Fort Washington, 80-83' the fort named after him, 83; Landgrave Frederick II. writes to him concerning Trenton, 97; Knyphausen supersedes Heister; letter from the Landgrave, 113-115; Brandywine, 198, 199; concerning Ewald's warning before Germantown, 201, n.; left in command at New York during Sir Henry Clinton expedition to Charleston, 243-255; Stirling's attack on Staten Island, 255; plundering of Hackensack, 256, 257; loss inflicted on the Americans during the winter, 257; Springfield, 257, 258; return to Europe, 282.
Knyphausen. See Fort Washington; Regiment.
Lafayette, Major-General Marie Paul Joseph Roch Ives Gilbert de Motier, Marquis de, meets Baroness Riedesel, 193, 194; wounded at Brandywine, 199; escapes Sir William Howe (Barren Hill), 211; marches to Virginia, 271; retreats to the Rappahannock, 273; returns following Cornwallis, 273, 274; Green Spring, 274, 275; Yorktown, 277-281.
Laurel Hill, a redoubt on, 79; taken by Lord Cornwallis, 80. See Fort Washington.
Lauzun, Armand Louis de Gontaut Biron, Duke de, commanding a legion near Gloucester, Va., skirmishes with Lieutenant-Colonel Tarleton, 278, 279.
Lee, Major-General Charles, disobeys Washington, '85; misbehaves at Monmouth Court House, 213, 214.
Lee, Major Henry, surprise and abandons Paulus Hook, 227, 228; at Springfield, N. J., 259; routs a party of Tories, 267; Guildford Court House, 268, 269.
Lee. See Fort Lee.
Leslie, General A., in command at Princeton, N. J., 91; sails to Virginia and South Carolina, 265; joins Lord Cornwallis, 267; Guildford Court House, 268, 269.
Lessing, Gottlieb Ephraim, librarian to the Duke of Brunswick, 8.
Levy money paid to the Duke of Brunswick, 17; to the Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel, 19.
Lincoln, Major-General Benjamin, not at the battle of Stillwater, 159; threatens Savannah and returns to Charleston, 240; action at Stono Ferry, 241; joins D'Estaing in attacking Savannah, but is repulsed, 242; Charleston threatened by Sir Henry Clinton, 243, 244; inactivity of Lincoln, 245; siege and surrender, 244-250.
Linsingen. See Grenadiers.
Little Egg Harbor, the Triton captured and taken into, 236, 237.
Long Island (plan, 63), invaded by the British and Hessians, 59; description, 61; skirmishing, 60-62; battle, 62-68; the Americans retreat to New York, 68, 69; expeditions to Long Island, 225.
Loray, Captain Friedrich Heinrich, at the battle of Long Island, 63.
Lords, debate in the House of, 30-35.
Lossberg, Lieutenant-General Friedrich Wilhelm (?) von, supersedes Knyphausen in 1782, 282. See Regiment.
Louisiana, operations in, 252.
Luttrell, Hon. James, speaks in the House of Commons, 30.
MacCrea, Jane, killed by Indians, 138.
MacKonkey's Ferry, Washington crosses the Delaware, 92.
Macleod, Lieutenant J., commanding the British artillery at Guildford Court House, checks the Americans, 269.
Maestricht, Low Countries, Baroness Riedesel in danger of robbers, 126.
Magaw, Lieutenant-Colonel Robert, in command at Fort Washington, 79; surrenders, 81, 82.
Mallet, Captain Louis Marie de, at the battle of Long Island, 62.
Malsburg, Captain Friedrich von, at Fort Washington, 83.
Manchester, Duke of, speaks in the House of Lords, 34.
Manchester, Va., magazines burned by General Phillips, 272.
Manhattanville, skirmish near, 72.
Mars, the, and Comet capture the Triton; the Mars overset, 236.
Matthews, General, commands a column in the expedition against Boundbrook, 108-110.
Mauduit, M. du Plessis de, at Redbank, 204-207; conversations with Colonel von Donop, 207.
Maxwell, Brigadier-General William, skirmish near Dilworth, 200.
Mayer, Councillor, travelling companion to the Margrave of Anspach-Bayreuth, disappears, II.
Meigs, Colonel Return Jonathan, expedition to Sag Harbor, 225.
Mercer. See Fort Mercer.
Mifflin, Major-General Thomas, joins Washington at Trenton, 106.
Mifflin. See Fort Mifflin.
Miller. See Fort Miller.
Minden, Prussia, the mercenaries obliged to avoid it, 55.
Minnigerode. See Grenadiers.
Mirabeau, Honoré Gabriel Riquetti, Comte de, condemns the letting of troops, his pamphlet, 22.
Mobile, attempted relief of, 253.
Mohawk, Valley, St. Leger's expedition, 148-150.
Monmouth Court-House, N. J., the British retreat by, 213; battle, 214.
Montgomery, Richard, his defeat in Quebec not known in England on April 4, 1776, 121; penance of his partisans, 124, 125.
Montreal, meeting between Sir Guy Carleton and Indians, 121; the town described by General Riedesel, 122.
Morgan, Brigadier-General Daniel, battle of Cowpens, 266, 267; Morgan leaves the army, legend concerning his house, 268.
Morris's Heights, near Philadelphia, fortified, 210.
Mount Holly, N. J., the British retreat through, 213.
Mount Independence, an outwork of Fort Ticonderoga, evacuated, 140.
Mud Island, British detachments sent against, 201; Fort Mifflin taken, 208.
Muhlenberg, Brigadier-General Peter, foiled by Captain Ewald, 270, 271.
Murray, Mrs., detains Sir. William Howe, 72.
Musgrave, Lieutenant-Colonel, at Germantown, 202.
Mutiny at Ziegenhayn, 40; at Ochsenfurth, 48, 49.
Napoleon Bonaparte blames the Landgraves of Hesse, 25.
Negroes, their condition in New England described by a Brunswick officer, 186, 187; at Charleston, S. C., 250, 251; drag boats overland to operate on Cooper River, 248; taken by General Phillips on James River, 272.
Neversink Hills, the British retreat by the, 213.
Newark, N. J., expedition against, 256.
New Brunswick, N. J., occupied by the British, 85, 87, 107, 110, 197; meeting of Ewald and Hamilton, 112, 113.
New London taken and burned by Benedict Arnold, 263.
New Orleans, Don Bernardo de Galvez, Spanish governor at, 252.
Newport, occupied by the British, mode of life, 215-218; capture of General Prescott, 217; arrival of Anspachers, 218; unsuccessful attack by a French fleet and an American army, 218, 219; evacuation, 220. See Estaing; Lord Howe; Percy; Pigot; Prescott; Sir Henry Clinton; Sullivan.
New Rochelle, the British army near, 75.
New York, described, 70, 221-223; indefensible and occupied by the British, 71; fire, 73, 74; Fort Washington taken, 78-84; skirmishes near Kip's Bay, 301, n.; Manhattanville, 72; Courtland's Plantation and East Chester, 223-225; Paulus Hook, 227-229; Staten Island, 255; Hackensack, 256, 257; Fort Independence, 260-262; General von Knyphausen in command at New York, 255-257; Sir Henry Clinton expects to be attacked, 262, 263; New York evacuated, 282.
Nobility, Hessian officers not belonging to the, 44.
North Anna River, Lord Cornwallis at the, 272.
North Edisto River, the British fleet enters the, 244. See Charleston.
North, Lord, speech in the House of Commons, 27, 28.
North Point passed by the French fleet, 218. See Newport.
Nova Scotia, Hessians encouraged to settle there after the war, 291.
Numbers of Germans sent to America, of recruits sent out, and of soldiers who returned to Germany, 20, 21, 282, 299, 300; estimated numbers of killed, of men who died of illness, and of deserters during the war, 300; German losses in various battles, 301; numbers in the first and second divisions of Brunswickers, 46, 119; of Hessians, 46, 75. (For the numbers of men engaged in various battles and expeditions, and of American and English killed and wounded, see the accounts of those battles and expeditions.)
Ochsenfurth, mutiny of the Anspach and Bayreuth regiments at, 48, 49.
Officers, American, mostly taken from civil life, 59; described by a Hessian colonel, 66, 67; beaten by Germans when prisoners, 66; certain officers described by Washington, 78; officers in charge of Saratoga "conventioners," 187, 188; officers commended by Ewald, 226, 227. Brunswick, their observations concerning the Americans, 182-189; misunderstanding of the Americans concerning them, 189. Hessian, not generally of noble birth, their general character, 44; observations on Staten Island, 59; Long Island, 61, 62; New York, 71, 221-223; Philadelphia, 209, 210; Newport, 215, 216; Charleston, 250, 251.
Oglyby (Ogilvie?), widow, nurses Lieutenant Hinrichs when wounded, 73.
Olivia, surgeon in Regiment von Lossberg, a prisoner at Fredericksburg, 103.
Oriskany, battle of, 148, 149.
Osborn, Colonel, skirmish near Boundbrook, 112.
Oswego, N. Y., Colonel St. Leger at, 148, 150.
Parliament, debate in, 27-35.
Patterson, Colonel, brings reinforcements for Sir Henry Clinton from Savannah to Charleston, 246.
Paulus Hook, N. J., held by the British during the winter of 1777, 107, 115; surprised, taken, and abandoned by Henry Lee, gallant behavior of Hessians, 227-229.
Pausch, Captain G., of the Hanau artillery, distinguishes himself at Freeman's Farm, 153.
Penance at Quebec of the partisans of Arnold and Montgomery, 124, 125.
Pensacola, Fla., Waldeck regiment at, 251-254; besieged and taken by the Spaniards, 253, 254.
Percy, Earl of, at the battle of Long Island, 63; Fort Washington, 80; gives up the command of Newport, complimentary letter from the inhabitants, 216, 217.
Pertido River, boundary between the British and Spaniards, 253.
Petersburg, Va., death of General Phillips, 272; junction of Lord Cornwallis and Arnold, 272.
Philadelphia, Pa., Congress retires from Philadelphia to Baltimore, 86; operations for the taking of Philadelphia, 197-200; the city occupied by Lord Cornwallis, 201; British occupation and Hessian descriptions, 209-212; evacuation, 212, 213; the French and American armies pass through, 277.
Phillips, Major-General William, under Burgoyne, councils of war, 156, 162-169; compliments Baroness Riedesel, 170; visits her in the cellar in Saratoga, 177; in command in Virginia, dies, 272.
Phillips, House, N. Y., skirmish near, 223; Lieutenant-Colonel Emmerich's expedition, 260.
Pickens, General Andrew, routs a party of Tories, 267.
Pigot, Major-General, in command at Newport, 217.
Plessis, du. See Mauduit.
Plumfield, Major, aid to General Phillips, nursed by Baroness Ruedesel at Saratoga, 177.
Point of Fork, Va., General Steuben outwitted by Lieutenant-Colonel Simcoe, 273.
Pollingtown. See Hackensack.
Pontchartrain, Lake, Waldeckers taken prisoners on, 252.
Porbeck, Colonel Friedrich von, complimented by General Prevost at Savannah, 242.
Portsmouth, England, Germans at, 119, 120.
Portsmouth, Va., General Leslie at, 265; skirmish near, 270, 271; General Phillips at, 272; Cornwallis, 276.
Prescott, Major-General Robert, captured on Rhode Island, 217; being exchanged, defends Newport, 218, 219; evacuates it, 220.
Prevost, General, takes command in Savannah, operations in South Carolina and Georgia, 240, 241; attack on Savannah repulsed, 242; plundering, 245.
Princeton, N. J., occupied by the British, 87; fugitives from Trenton escape to Princeton, 95; battle, 107.
Prisoners, American, at Long Island, harnessed to cannon, 64; officers beaten, 66. German, Hessians taken at Trenton, 95, 96; cross the Delaware, 100; officers dine with Washington, 101; sent to Pennsylvania and Virginia; General Putnam, 102; officers in Virginia, 103, 104; privates in Philadelphia and the Valley of Virginia, anecdotes, 104-106; soldiers let themselves out as farm servants, 106, 191; Brunswickers taken at Saratoga lay down their arms, 181, 182; march to Cambridge, 184, 189; at Cambridge, hardships, 189-193; march to Virginia, 195, 196; Morgan's house, 267; desertion of prisoners, 287-290.
Provincials. See Tories.
Pulaski, Count Casimir, his legion deceived by Ewald, 246; Pulaski killed before Savannah, 246, n.; Pulaski enlists deserters, 288.
Putnam, Major-General Israel, mentioned by Colonel von Heeringen, 67; evacuates New York, 71; undertakes to build a barrier across the Hudson, 79; described by a Hessian officer, 102.
Puy, Lieutenant-Colonel Johann Christian du, commands the regiment von Bose at Guildford Court House, 269.
Quebec, governor refuses to allow the Zerbst regiment to land, 52; Burnswickers arrive at, 120; second division arrives, 124; penance, 124.
Rall, Colonel Johann Gottlieb, distinquished at Chatterton Hill, 77; and Fort Washington, 80-83; quartered at Trenton, at his own request, 87, 88; his recklessness and contempt for the Americans, 88-91; attacked by Washington, 93; Rall is roused with difficulty, 93; takes command of his troops and gives various orders, 94; leaves the town, 94; tries to return, is mortally wounded and taken, 95; his responsibility, 97, 98. See Regiment.
Rappahannock River, Lafayette retreats to the, 273.
Raritan Landing, expedition thence to Boundbrook, 108-110; skirmish, 110-112.
Rattlesnake, the, taken near John's Island with Hessian flags aboard, 241.
Rauber, Christoph Wilhelm von, punished for posting up lampoons against the Margrave of Anspach, II.
Raynal, Guillaume Thomas Francois, Abbé, writes concerning the letting of troops, 22.
Reading, Pa., Wiederhold a prisoner at, 237.
Recruiting system, 37-44; applied to Riedesel, 117.
Redbank, N. J., expedition against, 204-208. See Fort Mercer.
Reed, Colonel Joseph, visits Colonel Von Donop, 112.
Regiment, the system on which Hessian regiments were named, 296; list of the German regiments engaged in the war, with the principal operations in which each regiment was concerned, 297, 298. The following regiments are especially mentioned in the text: Regiment von Bose, sails for Virginia and South Carolina, 265; Guildford Court House, 269; Green Spring, 275. Regiment von Donop, with Emmerich's expedition to Phillips House, 261. Regiment von Knyphausen, at Chatterton Hill, 77; captured at Trenton, 87, 88, 95; embarked for Quebec, storm and capture, 230-238. Regiment von Lossberg, at Chatterton Hill, 77; Fort Washington, 83; Trenton, 87-95; embarked for Quebec, storm and capture, 230-238. Regiment Rall, at Chatterton Hill, 77; Fort Washington, 83; the regiment made up of bad material, 87; Trenton, 87-95; the same regiment under the name of Regiment von Trumbach, at Stono Ferry, 241. at Savannah, 242. See Anhalt-Zerbst; Anspach-Bayreuth; Brunswickers; Chasseurs; Grenadiers; Hessians; Waldeck.
Reizenstein, Von, equerry to the Margrave of Anspach, refuses him his pistols, 10.
Reynell, Mrs., in the cellar with Baroness Riedesel at Saratoga, 173, 174.
Rhine, large number of states of states on the, 47.
Richmond, Duke of, moves a protest in the House of Lords, 30-32; anmakes a speech, 32, 33.
Richmond, Va., burned by Benedict Arnold, 270.
Riedesel, Baroness Frederika von, letters to her from her husband, 118, 120; starts from Wolfenbuttel, 126; adventures on the road to London, 126-129; and in London, 129, 130; and at Bristol, 130; presented at court, 131-133; journey to Canada and in Canada, the Isle aux Sonnettes, 133-135; in Burgoyne's army, notices that secrets are not kept, 153; sees the action of Freeman's Farm, wounded officers in her house, 154; account of the second fight near Stillwater, 159; death of General Fraser, 160; on the retreat to Saratoga she is complimented by General Phillips, and reproves General Burgoyne, 169, 170; in a cellar at Saratoga, 172-179; assists in concealing the Brunswick colors, 182; enters the American camp, and snubs General Burgoyne, 183, 184; entertained by General Schuyler, 184; observations on the road to Cambridge, 187, 188; life at Cambridge, 191-193; ball, 192; militia called together by beacons, 193; journey to Virginia, meeting with Lafayette, anecdotes of her treatment by the Americans, 193-195.
Riedesel, Major-General Friedrich Adolph von, early life and enlistment, 117, 118; appointed major-general in command of the Brunswick contingent in America; sees nothing disgraceful in that business, 118; sets out from Brunswick, imperfect equipment of the soldiers, 119; leters home, 117-121; condition of Canada, 121; interview with Indians, 121, 122; naval battle on Lake Champlain, 122, 123; reconnoitres Fort Ticonderoga, 123; winter quarters, occupations and amusements, 123-125; does not like Burgoyne, 136, 137; approaches Mount Independence, which is abandoned, 140; action at Hubbardton, 141; letter from Burgoyne concerning baggage, 142; plan for Baum's expedition, 142, 143; expedition to Bennington, 143-148; Riedesel had improved the Brunswick uniform, 124, 145; commands the left wing after crossing the Hudson, 152; fight at Freeman's Farm, 152, 153; councils of war, 156; reconnoissance, and second fight near Stillwater, 156-159; in the retreat commands the head of the column, 160, 161; councils of war, and negotiations for surrender, 162-179; state of feeling between Riedesel and Burgoyne, 170-172; conceals the Brunswick colors, 181, 182; his contempt for American officers, description of members of the General Court of Massachusetts, 188, 189; life at Cambridge, 189-193; journey to Virginia, 193; exchanged, 196; writes to Washington, 284.
Riflemen, American, on Long Island, 61; described by Colonel von Heerin, 65, 66; at Fort Washington, described, 82; German, see Chasseurs.
Rochambeau, Count de, joins Washington before New York, 262; march to Virginia, 276; Yorktown, 277-281.
Rockel, servant of Baroness Riedesel, undertakes to defend her, 127; anxious about General von Riedesel, 176.
Rodney, Thomas, writes concerning Trenton, 92.
Rubenkonig, Sergeant, gallant conduct near Fort Independence, 261.
Russia refuses to let out troops, 14.
Sag Harbor, Colonel Meigs's expedition to, 225.
Sandy Hook, the first Hessians at, 58; Howe sails for the Chesapeake, 197; Clinton retreats to, 214; Wiederhold puts back to, 231; Campbell sails to Savannah, 240; last Hessians pass, 282.
Saint Augustus, Fla., General Prevost arrives at Savannah from, 240.
Saint-Clair, Major-General Arthur, abandons Fort Ticonderoga, 140; fight at Hubbardton, 141.
Saint Ives, Cornwall, the disabled Anna arrives at, 244.
Saint-Leger, Colonel Barry, expedition to Fort Stanwix and battle of Oriskany, 148, 149; a company of Hessians from Hanau with him, 149, n.; retreat, 150.
Sancoik, Vt., stores captured by Baum, letter from Baum to Burgoyne, 144.
Santa Rosa Island. See Pensacola.
Sartoga, N. Y. (plan, 163), Americans retreat to, 142; British retreat to, 161; councils of war, negotiations and capitulation, 162-169; Baroness Riedesel, 170-179; terms of capitulation not fulfilled, 180, 181; British and Brunswickers lay down their arms, Brunswick colors concealed, 181, 182; appearance of American officers and soldiers, 182, 183; Gates receives the British and Brunswick officers, 183; Generals Schuyler and Burgoyne and Baroness Riedesel, 183, 184.
Savannah, Ga., taken by the British and Hessians, 240; attacked by the French and Americans, 242; still held by the British in the autumn of 1781, 270.
Saville, Sir George, speaks in the House of Commons, 30.
Schiller, Johann Thomas Friedrick, his indignation at the letting of troops; tragedy of Cabale und Liebe, 25, 26.
Schlieffen, minister to the Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel, answers Mirabeau and Raynal, 22, 23; Heister writes to him concerning Trenton, 96; Baroness Riedesel meets him in London, 129.
Schlotheim, Fraulein von, mistress of the Count of Hesse-Hanau, 7.
Schlozer's Briefwechsel, the most influential German periodical of its time, favorable to the British, 21.
Schmidt, Major-General Martin Conrad, commands a column at the taking of Fort Washington, 80; mentioned in general orders, 83.
Schuyler, Major-General Philip, his civility to Baroness Riedesel and to General Burgoyne, 183, 184; his daughter, Mrs. Carter, 191, 192.
Schuylerville, Burgoyne's army crosses the Hudson at, 151.
Scott, Colonel, said to have set fire to New York, 74.
Seume, Johann Gottfried, forcibly enlisted, 38; at Ziegenhayn, his companions and mutiny, 39, 40; life on a transport ship, 56, 57.
Seymour, Mr., speaks in the House of Commons, 29, 30.
Sharpshooters. See Chasseurs; Riflemen.
Shelburne, Earl of, speaks in the House of Lords, 34.
Shelter Island, inhabitants afraid of the Hessians, 215.
Simon's Island, S. C., British disembarked at, 244.
Simcoe, Lieutenant-Colonel, skirmish near East Chester, 223, 225; outwits Baron Steuben, 273; engagement near Williamsburg, 274; crosses James River before the battle of Green Spring, 274; Gloucester, 278.
Sing Sing, American advanced guard at, 260.
Skene, Governor Philip, accompanies Baum to Bennington, 144.
Skenesborough. See Whitehall.
Skibback Creek. See Germantown.
Sobbe, Lieutenant Christian, of the Regiment von Knyphausen, a prisoner at Fredericksburg, 103.
Solebay, the frigate, retakes the Badger, 238.
Sonnettes, Isle aux, Baroness Riedesel at, 134, 135.
Southerland, Lieutenant-Colonel, sent by Burgoyne to build a bridge over the Hudson and recalled, 162.
Sutherland, Major, commanding at Paulus Hook, refuses to yield, 228.
Spain declares war on England; operations in Louisiana and West Florida, 252-254.
|Specht, Colonel Johann Friedrich,||one of these commands the German detachments in the second battle near Stillwater, 157, n.; Speth taken prisoner, 158.|
|Spech, Lieutenant-Colonel Ernst Ludwig Wilhelm von,|
Springfield, N. J., actions at, 258, 259.
Spyt den Duyvel. See Courtland's Plantation; Courtland's Reach; Fort Independence.
Stade, Brunswickers embarked at, 46, 119.
Stark, John, commands the Americans at Bennington, 146, 147.
Staten Island, Hessians land, 58; attack of Lord Stirling, 255; British retreat to, 260. See Springfield.
Staunton, Va., Brunswick prisoners near, 196, n.
Sterling, Colonel, at the taking of Fort Washington, 80.
Steuben, Major-General Friedrich Wilhelm von, writes to Schlozer's Briefwechsel, 21; in Virginia, 270; outwitted by Lieutenant-Colonel Simcoe, 273; orders German deserters back to their regiments, 290.
Stillwater, N. Y., engagement near, at Freeman's Farm, 152, 153; reconnoissance and second battle of, 156-160.
Stirling, General William Alexander (called) Earl of, is taken prisoner at the battle of Long Island, 63; described, 64, 66, 67; detached, 85; at Trenton, 95; politeness, 101; his account of the numbers in Washington's army at Trenton considered, 101, n.; skirmish, 197; supports Lee's attack on Paulus Hook, 227, 228; attacks Staten Island, 255; at Elizabethtown Point, 258.
Stirn, Major-General Johann Daniel, mentioned in general orders after the storming of Fort Washington, 83.
Stockbridge Indians defeated and killed, 223-225.
Stono Ferry, fight at, 241.
Subsidies received by the Prince of Hesse-Hanau, 7; the Duke of Brunswick, 8, 17; the Margrave of Anspach-Bayreuth, 12; the Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel, 19; total amount of subsidies, 282, 283.
Suffolk, Earl of, content with Colonel Faucitt's treaties, 14; defends them in the house of Lords, 33; insists on von Heister's recall, 114.
Sullivan, Major-General John, captured at Long Island and described by Colonel von Heeringen, 66; at Trenton, 93-96; Brandywine, 198, 199; Newport, 218, 219.
Sumter, Lieutenant-Colonel, surprised by Tarleton, 265.
Tarleton, Lieutenant-Colonel Bannastre, surprises Sumter, 265; defeated at Cowpens, 266, 267; raid to Charlottesville, 272, 273; skirmish with Lauzun, 278, 279.
Taxes, remitted by the Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel, 6; by the Count of Hesse-Hanau, 8.
Throg's Neck, the British land at, 75.
Tories (Provincials), with Baum, escape from Bennington, 146; with St. Leger, 148; leave Philadelphia, 212; leave Newport, 220; at Paulus Hook, 227, 228; with the expedition to Charleston, 243; at Pensacola, 251-254; routed in North Carolina, 267.
Trenton, N. J. (plan, 93), occupied by a Hessian brigade, 87; the town described; arrangement of troops, 88; attack, 90; surprise, battle and surrender, 93-96; importance of the affair, 96-99. See Rall; Washington.
Triton, the brig, carrying a part of the Regiment von Knyphausen, storm and capture, 230-237. See Wiederhold.
Trois Rivieres, Riedesel's winter quarters at, 123; festivities, 125; Baroness Riedesel, 134.
Trumbach. See Regiment.
Trumbull, Jonathan, Governor of Connecticut, letter to him from Washington concerning Trenton, 87, n.
Tybee Island, the British fleet at, 244.
Uniforms of the Hessian chasseurs, 61; of the Brunswick troops, 119, 124, 145.
Valcour Island, Lake Champlain, naval battle near, 122, 123.
Valley Forge, Washington at, 211.
Van Doeren's House, the Hessian chasseurs near, at the battle of Germantown, 202.
Vaughan, General William, his expedition up the Hudson, 155; its influences on the terms granted by Gates to Burgoyne, 166, n.
Viomenil, Major-General Baron de, storms a redoubt at Yorktown, 279, 280.
Voltaire, Francois Marie Arouet de, letter to him from Frederick the Great, 24, 25.
Waldeck, Frederick, Prince of, lets out troops, 3, 12; writes to the Earl of Suffolk, 15. See Numbers.
Waldeck, Regiment, sent to the sea through Cassel, 46; joins the army, 75; a detachment attacked and taken, 107; embarked for Florida, touch at Jamaica, and arrive at Pensacola, 251; three companies sent to Baton Rouge are taken prisoners, Waldeckers taken on Lake Pontchartrain, 252; march to Mobile; death of Colonel von Hanxleden; Pensacola besieged and taken, 253, 254. See Appendix B; Regiment.
Wappoo, Neck, fire opened on Charleston from, 244, 245.
Warner, Colonel Seth, at Hubbardton, 141.
Washington, Colonel William, at Guildford Court House, 269.
Washington, General George, commands the American army, its numbers, 58; battle of Long Island, 62-68; retreat from Long Island, 68, 69; evacuates New York, 71; indignant with the New England militia, 72; skirmish near Manhattanville, 72; proposes to burn New York, 74; occupies the passes leading from Throg's Neck, 75; White Plains, action on Chatterton Hill, 76, 77; Washington describes certain American officers, 78; retreat, 78; wishes to abandon Fort Washington, but is overruled, 79; offers to attempt to save the garrison, but in vain, 82; retreats across New Jersey, 85; and across the Delaware, 86; praises the Hessians, 86; information of Howe's intention to march on Philadelphia, 86, 87; writes to Governor Trumbull, 87, n.; crosses the Delaware, 92; Trenton, 93-96; retreats across the Delaware, 96; entertains prisoners, their opinion of him 101, 102; orders the Hessian prisoners to be marched about Philadelphia, 104; tries to soothe the popular feeling towards them, 106; recrosses the Delaware and skirmishes with Lord Cornwallis, 106; retreats from Trenton, action at Princeton, 107; authorized to raise troops, the number on hand in March, 1777, 115; Washington faces Sir William Howe in New Jersey in the summer of 1777, 197; Brandywine, 198-200; Germantown, 201-203; unable to reinforce Fort Mercer, 208; Valley Forge, 211; Monmouth Courthouse, 213, 214; approaching Springfield, 258; with Rochambeau before New York, 262; the American and French armies start for Virginia, 262, 276; march to Virginia, 277; the allied armes at Williamsburg, 277; siege of Yorktown, 277-281; Washington attempts to induce the Germans to desert, 286; his opposition to the practice of enlisting deserters, 287, 288.
Washington. See Fort Washington.
Wayne, Brigadier-General Anthony, at Brandywine, 199; surprised, 200; Stony Point, 226; joins Lafayette in Virginia, 273; part of his brigade engaged near Williamsburg, 274; Green Spring, 274, 275.
Webster, Lieutenant-Colonel, at Guildford Court House, 268, 269.
Weedon, Brigadier-General George, at Gloucester, Va., 278.
West Florida, operations in, 251, 254.
White Plains, N. Y., occupied by Washington, 75, 76; action at Chatterton Hill, 76, 77; Washington retreats, 78.
Whitehall, N. Y., its position, 139; American vessels captured or burned, 141.
Wiederhold, Lieutenant Andreas, fords the Bronx, 77; Fort Washington, 80, 81; on picket duty at Trenton, 91; attacked, 93; reports to Colonel Rall, 94; wades in the Delaware, 100, n.; dihes with Washington, 101, 102; at Dumfries and Fredericksburg, love affair, 103, 104; dislikes Philadelphia, 209; commissioned as captain; embarks for Quebec; storm and capture, 230-236; exchanged, 237.
Wilhelmina, Margravin of Bayreuth, her memoirs, 9.
William. See Hesse-Hanau.
Williamsburg, Va., engagement near, 274; allied armies at, 277.
Willoe, Captain, with Baroness Riedesel on the Isle aux Sonnettes, 134, 135.
Wilmington, Del., occupied by the British fleet and army, 200.
Wilmington, N. C., Lord Cornwallis marches 10, 270; held by the British in the autumn of 1781, 270.
Winter Hill, near Cambridge, Mass., occupied by German prisoners, 189.
Wissenbach. See Regiment.
Wolfenbuttel, near Brunswick, Baroness Riedesel starts from, 126.
Women in New England described by a Brunswick officer, 184-187; in Boston rude to Baroness Riedesel, 191; in New York described by a Hessian, 222; in Charleston, 250.
Wreden, Captain Carl August von, at Long Island, 63; in a skirmish near Raritan Landing, 111; at Brandywine, decorated, 199; complimented by Sir William Howe, 211.
Wurmb, Lieutenant-Colonel Ludwig Johann Adam von, commands the chasseurs, 108; Germantown, 201, n., 202; skirmishes near New York, 223, 224; fight near Fort Independence, 260-262; warns Sir Henry Clinton that Washington is marching to Virginia, 262, 263.
Wurtemberg, the Duke of, offers troops to England, 15, 16; laws against desertion, 41.
Wurzburg, the Bishop of, owner of the town of Ochsenfurth, 48; sends cavalry to suppress the mutiny there, 49.
Wynesborough, Lord Cornwallis at, 265.
Yorktown, Va., occupied by Lord Cornwallis, 276; approach of the Americans and French, strength of the armies, 276, 277; skirmish at Gloucester between Tarleton and de Lauzun, 278, 279; Major Cochrane, 279; redoubts stormed; sortie, 279, 280; Lord Cornwallis attempts to cross the York River, 280; surrender, 280, 281.
Young's House, expedition against, 256.
Zerbst. See Anhalt-Zerbst.
Zeulenrode, riot at, 52.
Ziegenhayn, Seume at, 39; mutiny, 40, 41.