Notes on the Service, 1775
ARMS AND ACCOUTREMENTS.--At the special April session of the Legislature, when the first regiments were called out, it was enacted that the enlisted men should be furnished with good fire-arms, belonging to the colony, if they were unable to furnish themselves; and if they found their own arms, to be paid 10s. for the such of such arms. And in case more arms should be required they were to be impressed from householders not enrolled; ten shillings were to be awarded to all who offered guns, bayonets, and cartouch boxes to the soldiers. It was resolved at the same time that three thousand stand of arms be procured for the colony, "of the following dimensions, to wit: the length of the barrel three feet ten inches, the diameter of the bore from inside to inside three-quarters of an inch, the length of the blade of the bayonet fourteen inches, the length of the socket four inches and one-quarter; that the barrels be of suitable thickness, with iron ramrods and a spring in the lowest loop to secure the ramrods, a good substantial lock, and a good stock well mounted with brass and marked with the name or initial letters of the maker's name." Col. Records, Vol. XIV, p. 420. Officers wore swords, or "hangers" as then commonly called.
Soldiers' Rations.--At the May session, the ration for the troops was fixed as follows: Three-fourths of a pound of pork or one pound of beef, one pound of bread or flour, three pints of beer to each man per day--beef to be fresh two days in a week; also, a half-pint of rice or a pint of Indian meal; six ounces of butter, and three pints of peas or beans each man per week. Soldiers on fatigue duty were to be allowed one gill of rum each per day, and at no other time. Milk, candles, soap, molasses, vinegar, coffee, chocolate, sugar, tobacco, and vegetables in season, were to be provided subject to the order of general and field officers. After the troops became Continental, the ration, as authorized by Congress, was not liberal, either in quantity or variety, as the colony allowance.
Pay of Officers and Soldiers.--At the April session the following was established as the pay per calendar month for officers and enlisted men:
Major-General 20 0 Brig.-General 17 0 Colonel 15 0 Lieut.-Colonel 12 0 Major 10 0 Captain 6 0 Lieutenant 4 0 Ensign 3 0 Adjutant 5 10 Quarter Master 3 0 Chaplain 6 0 Surgeon 7 10 Surgeon's Mate 4 0 Serjeant 2 8 Corporal 2 4 Fifer and Drummer 2 4 Private 2 0
Uniforms and Camp Equipage.--The troops for 1775 were generally without uniforms. They marched in citizens' clothes, with blankets and knapsacks. A few exceptions are noted, such as Captain Chester's Wethersfield Company, of the Second Regiment, which was clothed "wholly in blue turned up with red," and Captain Arnold's company of Governor's Guards, New Haven, in the Lexington alarm. Individual officers provided themselves with uniforms, but their rank was distinguished by different colored ribbons, which they were directed to wear.
Camp equipage consisted of tents or "marques" for officers, tents for soldiers, and tin and brass kettles, iron pots, frying pans, wooden bowls, and quart cups for company cooking and "messes." Each company was allowed one cart or wagon.
Regimental Standards.--It was enacted by the Legislature that the eight regiments of '75 should be distinguished by flags of different colors, as follows: 1st Regt., yellow; 2d Regt., blue; 3d Regt., scarlet; 4th Regt., crimson; 5th Regt., white; 6th Regt., azure; 7th Regt., blue(?); 8th Regt., orange.
Beyond the men of Captain Hanchett's company, captured at the assault on Quebec, a few Connecticut soldiers were taken prisoners in '75. Six or seven were captured at Bunker Hill, at noted. The following surrendered with Col. Ethan Allen near Montreal, Sept. 25, and were confined in jail at Halifax:
Roger Moore, Salisbury; Levi Barnum and Ebenezer Mack, Norfolk; John Gray, Samuel Lewis, Adonijah Muxum, David Goss [Goff?], Sharon; Ithuriel Flowers, Hartford; Charles Stewart, Stamford; Jonathan Mahn, Goshen; William Drinkwater, New Milford; Zachariah Brunsmade, Woodbury; John James Burque, Preston Denton, Barnabas Cone; Peter Noble (made his escape at Cape Fear, North Carolina).--Levi Munson, of Wallingford, taken with the same party, was sent to England with others, but returned to Halifax, June 21, '76; exchanged later and re-ent. Cont. service in '77.--Amos Green, of Branford, was captured in Northern Dept. Oct. 20, '75, carried to Quebec and then to England, where he remained till Aug., '76. Returning to Halifax he escaped, and in the course of two months reached his home.
Asa Whitney, of Salisbury, was armorer in Northern Dept. 2 months and 20 days from about July 20, '75.
Lieut. Charles Smith, of Hebron, belonging to Capt. Hart's Co. in Col. Sergeant's Mass. Regt. "absconded" in Aug. '75.
Capt. Noah Phelps, of Simsbury, who figured in the Ticonderoga Enterprise, appears later as army "contractor" in Northern Dept.
Lieut. Luther Stoddard, of Canaan, in 4th Company of Hinman's Regt., was also Adjutant of the Regt.
Mark Mezuzan, of Branford, is paid as Quarter Master in Northern Dept. He may have filled that position in Wooster's Regt.; doubtless the same officer Qr. Mr. in Col. Moses Hazen's Cont. Regt. in '77.